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Alarming Drop In Groundwater Level
Source: http://www.thehindu.com/2004/06/18/stories/2004061810680400.htm
NEW DELHI, JUNE 17. The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has warned against overdrawing of groundwater in most parts of the Capital. Though there are reports of some rise in the groundwater table in some pockets of Delhi, the CGWA said that its monitoring stations have noted a rather disturbing trend with Delhiites drawing out more than what is allowed, leading to depletion of the water table in South and South-West Delhi. In fact, the monitoring stations at Tughlakabad, Vasant Vihar and Vasant Kunj are in a near dry state.

Delhi requires over 850 million gallons of drinking water daily and the supply is about 620 million gallons, including the groundwater component. What puts pressure on the precious groundwater resource are the unauthorised and illegal colonies, which depend solely on it and the overdrawing is already too much, warn CGWA officials.

According to CGWA officials, "there is too much pressure on groundwater in Delhi. And people don't realise it because there is some signs of improvement. We see a rise in groundwater level right after the monsoon and then overdrawing follows leaving the groundwater table more devastated. Lack of maintenance and improper rainwater harvesting structures add to the problem. Also, widespread use of bore well and unauthorised pumping does not help.

But the CGWA is also faced with other problems. The rainwater harvesting notification issued two years ago states that all buildings with 100 sq. metre plot area or those generating 10,000 kilo litres of waste water should go in for conserving water and build rainwater harvesting structures. But the deadline has expired many times over.

While the notification was first brought in only for South and South-West Delhi, it was later extended to the other regions. But with the CGWB and the Ministry of Water Resources having identified Gurgaon and adjoining industrial areas as critical area in view of depletion of the groundwater resources due to its over-exploitation, the area too now come under the rules.


 
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting
Source: www.cgwb.gov.in
What is Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting
Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting is the technique through which rain water is captured from the roof catchments and stored in reservoirs. Harvested rain water can be stored in sub-surface ground water reservoir by adopting artificial recharge techniques to meet the household needs through storage in tanks.

The Main Objective of rooftop rain water harvesting is to make water available for future use. Capturing and storing rain water for use is particularly important in dryland, hilly, urban and coastal areas. In alluvial areas energy saving for 1m. rise in ground water level is around 0.40 kilo watt per hour.
Need for Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting

   1. To meet the ever increasing demand for water
   2. To reduce the runoff which chokes storm drains
   3. To avoid flooding of roads
   4. To augment the ground water storage and control decline of water levels
   5. To reduce ground water pollution
   6. To improve the quality of ground water
   7. To reduce the soil erosion
   8. To supplement domestic water requirement during summer, drought etc.

Advantages of Rain Water Harvesting
  1. Provides self-sufficiency to your water supply
  2. Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water
  3. Provides high quality water, soft and low in minerals
  4. Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged to ground water.
  5. Reduces soil erosion in urban areas
  6. The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive
  7. Rainwater harvesting systems are simple which can be adopted by individuals
  8. Rooftop rain water harvesting systems are easy to construct, operate and maintain
  9. In hilly terrains, rain water harvesting is preferred
  10. In saline or coastal areas, rain water provides good quality water and when recharged to ground water, it reduces salinity and also helps in maintaining balance between the fresh-saline water interface
  11. In Islands, due to limited extent of fresh water aquifers, rain water harvesting is the most preferred source of water for domestic use
  12. In desert, where rain fall is low, rain water harvesting has been providing relief to people

Safety Consideration Storage in Ground Water Reservoir
  1. For rooftop rain water harvesting through existing tubewells and handpumps, filter or desilting pit should be provided so that the wells are not silted.
  2. Such tubewells if pumped intermittently, increase the efficiency of recharge.
  3. If the ground water reservoir is recharged through, shaft, dug well etc., inverted filter may be provided.
Storage in Tanks
  1. A storage tank should not be located close to a source of contamination, such as a septic tank etc.
  2. A storage tank must be located on a lower level than the roof to ensure that it fills completely.
  3. A rainwater system must include installation of an overflow pipe which empties into a non-flooding area. Excess water may also be used for recharging the aquifer through dug well or abandoned handpump or tubewell etc.
  4. A speed breaker plate must be provided below inlet pipe in the filter so as not to disturb the filtering material.
  5. Storage tanks should be accessible for cleaning.
  6. The inlet into the Storage tank should be screened in such way that these can be cleaned regularly.
  7. Water may be disinfected regularly before using for drinking purpose by chlorination or boiling etc.
How Much You Can Collect

Collection Efficiency:
How efficiently the rainfall can be collected depends on several considerations.
Collection efficiencies of 80% are often used depending on the specific design.

Rainfall Reliability:
The first step is to determine how much water would be generated from your roof area. Average monsoon rainfall is used for this purpose.

Formula:
Total quantity of water to be collected (cu.m.) = Roof Top Area (Sq.m.) x Average Monsoon Rainfall (m) x 0.8



 
Special Cells For Water Harvesting
Source: http://in.indiatimes.com
NEW DELHI: The Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) will soon create a special water harvesting cell.

Accepting that the present set-up, which comprises only a handful of officials, may not be able to provide technical plans to a large number of people on time, CGWB chairman J S Burjia said the proposed cell will focus on artificial recharge. It will also help in removing difficulties faced by people in catching the rain, he said.

With a water crisis looming large over the city this summer, Burjia said efforts are being made to spread awareness on the need to harvest water. "Apart from training a large number of people on the technical aspects of harvesting, we are also trying to strengthen the regulatory mechanism to ensure that the directives are implemented," he said.

An official said CGWB will first check the places where groundwater is being exploited the most to find out whether harvesting structures have been installed.
In another measure, the CGWB proposes to implement the first phase of its Rs 24,500 crore, 10-year Master Plan for harvesting at the earliest.

"In the first phase, Rs 3,000 crore plan will be spent on constructing harvesting structures in areas like south and southwest Delhi where the groundwater situation is very bleak," he said.